Dr Witt Dr McGarrah Chiropractic Associates of Bedford

Classifications of Disc Pathology

Annular Tears / Fissures

Separation between fibers, avulsion from vertebral body insertions with tears through fibers involving one or more layers.


Localized displacement of disc material beyond the limits of the disc space which may be nucleus, cartilage, apophyseal bone, annular tissue or any combination.  Herniated discs may take the form of protrusion or extrusion, based on the shape of displaced material.
Normal Disc Disc Protrusion Disc Extrusion Disc Sequestration


The base of the lesion at the origin is broader than disc material beyond the disc space.


The disc material beyond the disc space is broader than the base.


Extruded disc material that has lost continuity with the disc of origin, “free fragment.”

Annular Bulge


Annular Bulge

An apparent generalized extension of disc beyond the edges of the apophyses.  This is a descriptive term of morphology, not a diagnostic category of Herniation.



Spondylosis deformans:

Degeneration of annulus characterized by anterior and lateral marginal osteophytes.

Intervertebral osteochondrosis:

Degenerative process involving the vertebral body endplates, nucleus pulposis and annulus, characterized by disc space narrowing, vacuum phenomenon and vertebral body reactive changes, including sclerosis, marrow changes and posterior osteophytes.





Chiropractic Associates of Bedford
Dr. Michael McGarrah and Dr. Robin Witt
3004 Highway 121, Bedford, TX
817-283-5333 or 817-283-4088
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